XIX -  .

          : 07.00.09 - ,


          - . 2004 .

OA XAPAKTEPCTKA PAOT

          Ayaoc e cceoa. Teo acoe pao ec paccopee oyeax opx ce a copecoro coa a pepe ooopo Moc oa XlX-aaa XX .
          o epo oeaa opa ooopa (ae coec oe oa opa) opaeaec oa paooce cppoax oox apoe, ocoe opae oopx ea oopa. Ha oyeax opax ocpooc oppe, ooc pax co, opoo ecoce, oee a ..
          Ha copeeo ae pa copeco ay, oa ce oeee a po cooee oce ooo yaapoo a, ocooe aee popeae aoe eee ay oopo ox, paee eocpeoax copecx coo. o co oepe ayapye papaoy eo x ye. Hapy c opo pyo cex coo ce ae ae cceoaee pea opaee aepa, cpe oopx ocooe eco pae oyea op ca. Oao ooe pe o cooac copa a cooae cpa aepa oa ee e ye cooeeco acee.
          aee coo-oece yype ee cpa a oo epec opeoo opa opaee opae, oee a x. B co oepe, ocyapcex (yex, oex, apxx) acx copax cocpeooe ae acc cppoax opo, ocoo coca oopx yaec apy, cceaa aaoa, o ec, e oooe ooeoo cooa. B apyeo oeeceo copopa paccapac oee opoc ace, cae c cope opx ce, oyoaa aa ac coo. Ooax pao o ye oyeax opx ce oa e cece.
          B acoee pe cceoae opx ce eo paaec ocaoo ao, oo oop o caoe oo cooaeo copeco c - eoo, aaec ee cppoax opx ce o ce x ooopa. B copeeo pae poo pacpocpae ep oap, pecac oee y. cooa aa c a ceo e coce e yea. Ta opao, cceoa cooypoo xoeceoo eoea opx ce oo peecoa yee coo o cop opo, x ee, aa cceaa.
          oo ayoo ae ooa paoa ee paecy eoc - aa yeo-caoa eeoc yeea ao, y pecapa, ae ooo oea ayo, ayo-oypo yeo cppoao epayp o ocoee y eoxooc e, cceaa, ye ya coo o oopa Moc.
          Haya oa ccepa. Bop e, papaoa popa cceoa oeee ay oopo pooo pya coo oo p peyaa, e pa ayo o:

  1. oyeae op Moc oa XIX - aaa XX . epe caoc peeo ceaoo cooeecoo cceoa.
  2. aa paoa ec o epx ecapx cceoa, opeex oyeae ope ca a eoe coao yypo cop Moc pyea XIX-XX .
  3. epe ee ay oopo e opyc ox opaex cex coo o ee cceoa.
  4. cecopo oec aa coo oo occao cpa cop a oa oyeax opo, opee cooyoc ceo ococx ooopo, ea aee oopao, pacx ycy opx ce a pyee XIX-XX ., oxapaepoa x a oooyepoae opoa.
  5. epe poee aa ocox apae cooa opx ce copeeo ayo cooece paoa eoece peoea o ye cooa aoo a coa.

          Oe cceoa - oyeae (oopaece) ope ca oa XIX - aaa XX . c opae Moc a aa ac copecoo, yypoo xoeceoo ace Moc. ae acc x coo, o acoe pee e caoc oeo caocoeoo cceoa.
          peeo ye ec opao oea oeca opaex cex coo o cop o oa oyeax opx ce Moc oa XlX-aaa XX .
          pa cceoa. Xpoooece pa pao oxaa epo c cepe 1890- . o 1917 . Opeeee e pa oycoeo yco epx ecx opo c a Moc aao aoo a opx ce Pocc. Bepx paa cceoa caa c Opc epeopoo 1917 oa, oe opee ee oac eoo yypo o ocyapca, epee ee co pao oopaecx oopaecx aee, oee px opepo aeco eeoc. a o opo peeo opeo o e oo aaeo ae opx ce Pocc, o o ca eoeeo ac oceeoo a yyp.
          Toopaece pa cceoa opaac peyeceo eppope opoa Moc a oe XlX-aao XX ., a ae opecoc Moc, opao axoec a opoo (Coo, Ocao, Ky p.), ocoy pao axoc eco copeco yypo aoc c opoo.
          e aa cceoa. e cceoa aaec oeco ye xapaepce opaooo oeaa oyeax opx ce 1895-1917 . a copecoo coa o cop ype Moc. K c ocox aa ccepa oocc: ee ocooo opyca coo, coepax opa o opx cax; paccopee opoco eo ye cooa oyeao op a copecoo coa; cceoae cop oe, o, a oa oyeax opx ce Moce; opeeee cee oo opae coe opoco cop yyp Moc.
          He cyao cceoa paa Moca, oopaece pa oopo ocxo XVII . K oy XIX coe Moca caa pye epo opaeco poeoc, oaa cyeceoe e a ae opx ce pyx peoax.
          Meooorece oco cceoa. oyeae ope ca coea cee coca a cex, a opaex coo. Ta opao, poea ye oyeax opo a coa o cop yype Moc cac a ocoe oecoo cooee, cepyeo pae cex, opaex eecex coo c peee ex po eop eooo copeeoo cooee. p cooa opeeex o coo yaac x cea. pee ocaex aa aece ocox cooa ceye eo: copo-ocae, cooeec aa ce, cpae, cceo-aaec. ooa ye paoo opaeoo aepaa caa ooo a ocoe ecapoo cceoa c cooae ax ax c, a cop, cyccoeee, cop ay ex, yeeeee.
          Meoooeco ocoo ye oex aceo e ca pao copo, oapco, yeeeo, cyccoeo .C. xaea, C.O. a, E.M. Epaoa, C.M. Kaaoa, B.M. Maoa, .A. eaa, H.C. Tapa, .. aea, B.B. eea, M.C. aoe, C.. Cayoa, B.M. Teea, C.. Meeea, B.. Tpeoa, .B. aca, T.H. oo p.
          paecoe aee pao coco yye oe exc a o oyeax opx cax pacpe pya coo o x ye. Peya a oceyeo cceoa oo aoyeoo a coo, oy cococoa aeey pa eoo a oo caocoeo cooaeo copeco c. Bao ac ccepa ec papaoa eoecx peoea o ye cooa opx ce. cceoae oyeax ce Moc coae oee aope yco aa cceoa oac ocoee, peoao cop paeee, cop, cooee, cop yyp oceeoc, cop aecoo ea.
          Maepa o cceoa oy cooa p apy, cceaa aaoa yex acx oapccx copa, a Moce, a pyx peoax; ye opo coecoo epoa; eox ypcax o cop pycco yyp, paeee.
          Apoa aepaa. ccepa a ocyaac, oopea peoeoaa ae a aepe peoao cop paeee Pocccoo ocyapceoo yaapoo epcea. Ocoe ooe acoeo cceoa opae 10 yax oe oaax a oepex (P, M, P p.).

OCHOBHOE COEPAHE CCEPTA

          Cpyypa cceoa. ccepa coco ee, epex a, ae poe. Bo ee oocoaec ayaoc pao e, copypoa oe pee cceoa, opeec e aa, ee o poe, pacpa aya oa, eopeeca paeca aoc peyao cceoa. B epo ae oaaa cee eoc aoo opaeoo aepaa cceoax XIX-XXI . oxapaepoaa aa cceoa. Bopa aa ocea papaoe eo ye cooa opx ce copeeo ayo-cceoaeco paeco eeoc. B pee ae pecaea cop oe cppoax opx ce, a oa opx ce Moce a pyee XIX-XX . B eepo ae paccapac oo oopa oyeax opx ce c a Moc.
          epa aa ccepa copopa co coep oop copopa cooo a cceoa. B epo paee cop e oyeax opx ce a ocoe paccope epap opoca eaec o o ecceoaoc oyeax opo Moc. apoee epeca cppoa op ca oocc oy XIX - aay XX ., pee pacea oo a pao pa, oa op caoc oyp oeo oeopoa. Heoocee ya oa 1890- - 1910- . (ocoo e cpe x ca H.. aeco) oo poce, a oc epec oy ooy eao a, pepac epe o occe eo coeopa. Cpe x ya opa o cop oyeax opo Moc cppox opo eo oc paeap xapaep. yee opx ce o pooeo 1920-1930- . ( cceoax A. Ocpoa, K.B. aea, A.K. oa, a cpaax ceapoaoo ypaa Coec oeoep), oa oyo aeee pae aoee a o opax, caaec pecaee o peee. B 1930-1950-e . yee opx ce o pocaoeo.
          B 1960- . cceoae opo opooc, , pee ceo, yax oapco (oeoepo cppoax opx ce), oope e opeeee aee ye cppoax opx ce. B paoax H.C. Tapa, M.C. aoe, .. aea, B.B. eea, B.M. Teea, .M. eoo p. ooe cee o cop oo a ooo oppecoe, aa acca opo, xapaepca eeoc pa oeecex aec, ceapoaxc a x yce; oeea eoxooc ye opo cocae aaoo. Ha ocooe aee oap (apy c py a oeopoa) pa copeco ay yaa cop A.. yoc.
          B aae 1980- . aaec ycee epeca oo apoa, opacae co ya, apyec yeo-caoa eeoc c peee ooaepao. ooe aee ye oyeax opo ea oepe Ayae poe eop cop oap (epa, eap 1983 .), oe poae oa a oopo oc po ocaoo xapaep. B 1980- . oc pao, ocee opeoo opa c a Moc. ep pacpe oo aaa oo aoee oypx ceo oox apoe c a Moc ca a .. Capea.
          Haa c epo oo 1990- . aaec o a ye opx ce: apyec poecc ye cooa opo, yyc oe opaee co, oc aye ao-oype pao, oae eoece opoc. pooee ee cpae a oooc oeoo opeooo cppoao op, oopa caoc oeo ye e oo oeoepo, o copo, cyccoeo, yeeeo, yypooo, ooo.
          cceoae cppoax opx ce 1890-1980- . acoee pe paaec o cey oco apae:
  1. yee opx ce a a ooo oppecoe oea oeopoa (A.M. Be, H.C. Tap, .. ae, M.C. aoe, B.B. ee, .. Cape, A.A. Meo, E. Caeo p.);
  2. paccopee cppoax apoe paax cceoa opaeco poeoc cop ecoo cycca (.. Opo, H.M. opa, A.E. Poooa, M.. aa, M.B. Haoa p.);
  3. yee po opo copecx cceoa (A.. yoc, .C. xae, C.. Meee, .B. ac, B.. Tpeo p.).

          ye opx ce ae a cceoa o cop ooace Moc (T.H. oo, .A. Ceaoo, T. Caypoo, A. ooa p.) cooeece pao (E.M. Epaoa, C.O. a, .H. yapea, B.M. Maoa, .A. eaa, p.), pacpe a pecae o ocoeocx coa opx ce eoe x ye.
          Ha pyee XX-XXl . cceoae cppoax opx ce cao popea xapaep caoe oo ayo c. oyoa ae ca c o pe eo ye opx ce oooce x cooa, ooae a cop xyoecex opo. B eo, ecop a yeoc oex opoco, e cyecye ooaeo cceoa, oceoo oyea opa Moc oa XlX-aaa XX .
          Bo opo paee Ocoe py coo x aee ye oyeax opx ce aec oop cceaa coo, apaax cop a oa oyeax opo c a Moc pyea XIX-XX . opaee co, peaee cceoa, peca coo oo acc opx ce 4 ocyapcex (yex oex) copa 2 acx ococx oe. Ocoo aoo cceoa ec o cppoax opx ce oea oa Poccco ocyapceo oe. Tae pee co copa Poccco ocyapceo oe o cyccy, ocyapceoo epaypoo ye, acx oe (A.A. Meoa, .. yaoa).
          B o py ocooe eco aa ao pye a a co, cae c yae opaeoo aepaa eee eo ay oopo. o, pee ceo, aao yex copa a, ocee Moce (a ca c cpa), a ae epea capx opo e oeo pepoy. B eo ya oo oo oec opaex coo, e yex oex copax.
          cee co a a oyoae aepa, a apxe oye. Cpe oyoax coo ooe aee e aooaee a eopoocee aepa. aooaee a, peaepoae ae pacpocpaee cex eax a Pocc, a ope ca, pecae, pee ceo, oyea oeo xapaepa. oyoax coo ceye e Bpeee ocaoe o ooo ac c ap 1872 oa, ca o eype ea (1890). ocoe aooaee a apy c py opa oyea, peaepoa pooco pacpocpaee cex eax a, opee oy ocyapcex ace o ooe ae opx ce, o e oo e o a pae oae oo a pao pa.
          B ocoe cceoa eopoocee oye, cae c poe acpao-oec yeo oo epaoo copecoo apxa . Moc (AM) Pocccoo ocyapceoo apxa pex ao (PAA). Maepa oa capeo ceopa o ea ea . Moc (AM . 212) oo peocpypoa o pao aec, opa ooaee, ycax ope ca. Coxpaac epeca pacpae opoc opaa eeoc oopaecx aee Moc, ae cee o oye papeex oyeo a eeoc opa, poay opx ce pyx eax a, oye o apye pa a poa poee ea, pae pacope o ea ea ooe pyoe. aepa oo yo xpoooece pa eeoc ox aee ooao, oe copo oa opx ce, oaoa eca pacooe oopaecx aee opa. Cpe pyx eopoocex ya ocooe aee ee Ka caa x a eo ceca paa C.. epeeea, ac e coo ye opoco eoopaoa pacpocpae opo.
          oye oo pocxoe - eyap epeca ae peca oo epec cceoa e. Aopo cooa oye oo apxa C.. epeeea (. 1287), xpaeoc PAA. Coxpaac epeca paa C.. epeeea c ec oopao .. ao pacpae o a opo o aay C.. epeeea. B o oe pecae epece o x opx ce, xpaec cpe pyx aepao oa.
          opoo eyapoo ace ao pao ocooe aee e ocoa xyoo A.H. eya, M.B. oycoo, A.. Ocpoyoo-eeeo, ocoea H.. yeo, pacpae ocoeoc a oa opx ce.
          Bae coo opa o ox oopaecx aeex, oopaecx aee x aeax ec cpaooe ae Bc Moca. Apeca cpaoa a. B cpaoe yaac: aeoae, apec, cee o aee p. py oo ae ec Cpaoa a o ax, oyx yeece pocoe ceeca, e yaac ae o opace, ece poa, poe eeoc pocxoe oyeo yeecoe ceeco a cey o. Byc oox a, pocopee a ecoo ece, oo coca pae opaece cee o aex opx ce, paee eece.
          Cpe oyoax coo aoe eco aa epoece a , pee ceo, ceapoae ypa, oopx coepc eao aeo o cppoax opax, x oeopoa. Oco epec pecae ooo-eepa ypa (C., 1888-1919), Bec paecoo ea: cppoa ayo-exec ypa (C., 1897-1898), eaoe cycco (C., 1901-1903), Haop ea p (C., 1902-1917), Opoe co (C., 1906-1908), Map oeoep (.., 1903-1906) p.
          Koecoe peee cceoae opaex cex coo ooo peocpypoa cop oopaecoo aee, ceapoaeoc a yce oyeax opo Moc - oceoaeo occao a eo eeoc, paccope accope ycaeo poy, py ocox aee, opao oopao, exa pacpocpae paa ocoeoc oa.
          Bo opo ae ccepa Copeee poe ye cooa oyeax opo ooaec o cceoa ooopo, peaac eoece peoea o ye apy opx ce, x cooa ya. B epo paee Ocoe pe eo pao c ooopa yex, oeax acx copax aop paccapae oyeay opy a copec co, ao ocoeoc oopoo ec epapa c eo oopoo copo, c c paoe yaec e oo ea, ecya opaee copoa, o apeca, peaaea ca, e epeo oepac aopc ec, a, ooe ee p. pya ocoeoc oyeax opo a copecoo coa aaec x coo ppoe - o coe cee ep cex, eecex opaex coo oopeeo. B c c yee x coo oo oaeo ocoac a eoax peax oecoo cooee. Cpe cooeecx peo, paoax cex copecx coo eo, ocoeo a pecac pe cpae coocae.
          C coao ye oyeax opx ce, c o ooo oppecoe, ca p ocoeoce coa, paex a coeopaoo oooo opypa: e copo (apeca cpaa), ae pa oox apo ceax oeo, paeeo ooc, oeo papee eopa o ea aecoo aa .. B c c , p paoe c op ca oae c a o cop o c. Toe cee o ee caoo a opx ce, pax ee eo ee oope, pacope, acaec eo oa, ooa pee ox ax opoco, cax c yee opx ce a copecoo coa.
          Ha ae e epoo oaoe c coo, eoxoo cpoa ce cee, yaae a oex copoax opoo ca, oope oy pacp co opao oea a oceyx aax pao c oyea. epoaao ec acc coo oe cceapoa o xpoooecoy, eaecoy pa. p cceaa acca opo aop oe oaac o ox po: aeco, pe eco a, exa ea, aeae oe p. Hapep, acoc o ex oe oyeae op opaec a op c opao oopae ooae-pepoye. Taa ocoeoc oe ceecoa o aece, ooo pae, pee a.
          B ocoy coec acca oyeax opo yeo oapcco pae o paeee o coepa xapaep aeaex oeo: a coe (opaae oee oe co ao oeceo ), oe (cpye opae oex ao, ecoce) oppee (opae ooo ecox ).
          p paoe co ae oeo oyeo, peoeyec e cep opo. Ha o oy yaa oaooe oopee oopoo (apeco) copo, yaae aeca, oepa cep, eooe peee eeo oooo opypa, cca oope eo copo p.
          Opee ay a oo opac a ceye p: ocoeoc oope oopoo copo oooo aa, a, pocaeo a oox eex, aa opae, oeex a eo copoe opoo ca. cxo o oooro aa, oco pye aa c: 1904 o (eee paeeo ep a oopoo copoe opx ce Pocc pyx cpaax) 1909 o (oee ac ooa apoa). a, pocaee a oox eex, ec cex cooe opee epx pay a.
          Aa ceo ooae poec oee oy apoy a opx ce. Ta, cxo ocoeoce oope opo a . Xpoo M. axpax, x oo apoa oce 1909 . (a oopoo copoe aa oeaaa ac ooa apoa). ocey aa ceo, oeex a eo copoe apoe, ooe oop o pee a oce 1912 ., a a opae ao epaopy Aecapy III eepay M.. Coeey, ye x cycc o oc e pae oa x op Moce 1912 .
          peao coe opoc opeee aopca oopa, ocoeo cyae a opo py oopaec pa (a a, K.A. epa, . aoa, epep, Haro K). pecaec eoppe pcae aopca oopa ae eyey oopay p, opepyc oo a pe a, e oepe apx py oyea. Ta a o e coxpac apx oopao aec, p apy aopca ooo peee pyx ooaepao, cee ceo c eaa ( oocpa), y oopx opeee oopa aeco.
          aepa ao cceoa oe ca a ac yeoo oapccoo ace ya coa opo, p oopo ocoeo a pecaec cooae po ayoo oca opo. oooa aopoao copo-opaecoo aaoa oe cpaa c oec eoo ye opx ce, a a peoaae peee cex opoco, cax c cooeec cceoae opo. B aece oaex cee aaoa peoeyc: opa o aece ece ea, pee a, paooc ooo oppecoe (opoe co, ooa apoa, eaoe), aae oeeoo a eo copoe cea, pepoy oex copo oooo aa, oepa op cep. Tae oe oeea opa o oopae xyoe, exe ea op, o aeaax (apep, peaoo xapaepa), ece xpae op p.
          Bo opo paee a Bopoc cooa oeax opx ce paccope ocoe apae ocoeoc cooa oyeax opx ce copeeo oece. Maca ya cooa coa epapo ca c ypoe a cee yeoc caoo peea, oy poee pe apae c pae copopa o ye opo.
          Copeee ee pee oyeax opo oaa x aoe cooae aeco, acc-ea, yeo-caoo ayo-cceoaeco eeoc. aao apae ooo po c a oo aca ox peex eex ay oopo opo opaca. oe aeca cooa opx ce epe cceoae xpae oo co ayaa aaa aeoo ye opx ce, ya aaoo oopo, pax cpaox cppoax yaaee.
          Tpe aa - ooopa cop yype Moc pyea XIX - XX . ocea cop oe o opx ce Moce oe XIX - aae XX . B epo paee coe a o oo op Pocc paccapac co oe cppoax ce Pocc, oope cac c poeee ooo peop aae 1870- . K 1890- . cpae coc ce peoc pacea ooo a ooo oppecoe (cpoeco eex opo, oe opaeco poeoc, pae ypa e p oce pyx oacx). B paoe poceac p aa o ox opo a pyee XIX-XX ., oope opaa aee coo-oece poecc Pocc.
          1894 - 1904 . - pe oe epoaaoo pa oo op Pocc; epo opae peee yca epx ox opo Pocc (oce xoa papee ac ae aac x yco) ao oe eeo ooc a ae ooo apo, cepe opao, o a aeee pae cppoax opo.
          Oee co aee opo a epo ae cocae ooo oyopa eca, oe oopx, e epa oype, o cpay pepaa co eeoc (.. Aae, B.P. ecce, oo M. Boeyc, opa .. apoa p.). ae oe opx ce aoc eaac epa e, poay ocyaa poy eoo pa apyex p (E.G. Svanstrom, Hermann Poy, Rommler & Jonas, Stengel & C p.). Ce, aeaee a opax x e, peca ocoo Kpe cae ece ocopeaeoc opoa. Ha o ae eaa poy, aa Pocc, aco oca opaae xapaep, cey aa opaa.
          C 1904 - 1914 oa accopec epo pacea oeao ( ooe cppoao) op, poc accoo a, ceo ooopa, aae oeopoa x eax a, oee ceapoax ypao. ae oox apoe caoc oxoo opac opaecoo pooca. K oy pee coppoac po py oeecex aee oopao, ycax ooop c a Moc (oee 30 pax aec, opa p. ypee), yeaec oe poy, eaaeo poo -a pa. eo o ecee a ae oe ox opo Moc, opoo pecae oapecx copax. Teaec peepyap aaex opo ca peao paoopa - o e oo aoece Kpe copecoo epa opoa, o epep, opecoc, aeae pae co, pooee Moce (paa 1904 ., peooe co 1905 ., aoee 1908 ., pece xo, p, ) p. B aae XX coe oeae op o pooe pacpocpaee, oc cox pae oypoc copeeo, o ooe x paccapa a co accoo opa.
          Cey epo - 1914 - 1917 . xapaepyec aee epeca oe ac cppoax opo c c aao epo Mpoo o. Hapy c poco aoopeo poy, o a oaec yeee ca ecyx aec, ae copaee pae opx ce, epy oepe, ox opo. Bee 1914 . ape a poeee ooceo Moce, pe eoooc coa ox ooceo cooa ea oo paee ceax eao. Tpyoc oeoo pee pe pepae ooecx ce c epae, o caaoc a ee ya pepae ocao pae oeaax opo epa pa pyx cpa, a ae copa pocccx opo a pay. Aepace acpoe Moce, a oe peooe oe pe ypae eex oopaecx eopoocex apxo oca aec. Haa c 1917 . aac poecc oee yraca apa oyeao op, c c e oeo ox opo eoro pa ao, xc eoeeo ac opoa, cee aeca ycaeo poy.
          Bo opo paee ae opx ce Moce a pyee XIX-XX . peocpepoaa cop pao oopaecx ooecx aee Moc, ceapoaxc a a opx ce. pecaea eoa opaaooo poecca a opx ce o oye papee ao ypae o ea ea . Moc a ope cooecyeo oopaecoo ooecoo aee o pacpocpae poy x aaax opox aax opoa. Moca apy c Ca-eepypo a ey epo opaeco poeoc opo a pyee XIX-XX . ae ea ooopo c a Moc a pyee XIX-XX . aac (o ocea aopa) oee 50 pyx eox opaecx p Pocc. peoaa oe ococx opo ycac Moce o aay ococx pee acx .
          coo ce aece a oa XIX - aaa XX . oo pae a ecoo py: ceapoaec oo a yce opx ce (A.A. opoa, M.A. Kae, . o-peco; oeco p epa e); opaa a, aaec yco opx ce apy c pyo xoeceo poye (epep, Hao K, oo K.A. epa, Oa C. Ee, oo .. aoa p.); pee a, ycae ope ca opeee aa co, c pea e (B.P. Ax, oe ee aee).
          Ha ocoa oecoo ye cex opaex coo aopy yaoc ycao ea aee opa aee opx ce, oe oopx pacpoa epe, apeca acepcx accope eao poy, o x eeoc. Kpaa xapaepca eeoc ooo 30 aee, oopao opa, pacx a ox opo Moc, peea poe I. Tae cceoa e ocoe coco pacpocpae cppoax opx ce, oaoa apeca aao pyrx ec x poa Moce.
          B pee paee Ope ca coao ypo cop Moc oa XlX-aaa XX . cppoae ope ca paccapac a aoe ee coao po cop Moc. cppoae ope ca - ee, oeec a ce oooo aecoo ea, cep paecoo cycca oopa, pa, oac eoeecoo oe oecex peoe. o aoa pa ae opo eeo opepoac a cpoc, o oeop peoe opeeeo aop, eoopao epeaa op c a aoee oceaex oeceo-ax ec opoa.
          B co oepe, op cpa aey po oypa ao opoa. oae opx ce apy cao co caoee o a cop yyp: pacpocpaee papoae oox apoe c opae ocopeaeoce opeeeoo opoa ( cpa) cococoa coee opaa ax ecoce eo c aeae oea.
          B eepo ae - Aa coepa oyeax opo Moc oa XIX-aaa XX . c oopaece eaece ocoeoc opae, oeex a ooopax. ep pae Too ooopo Moc oce aay eaecx ocoeoce ope ceo ox opx ce. Hecop a ce cecoaee paoopae ceo, o ox opo, aaxc o cey p, a ce yoe coopye, oc, oa, ee eee aee, aa, e, opoce eepe coopye, a, poeae pe ccey oco.
          ae oe opo Moc oce e aee opoa (ce, ya, a, e, ypc). Opoo oypoc ooac opae ococx oao oc. eo c x a, cax eoeeo ac opoco acpo, aaoc aoco ox oce pco c ocopeaeoc opoa. ooe co ox ceo o oceo oa oae.
          ae e ooe ae ce ae epeea, pocxo opoco xoce aae XX ea: a op oaa opae cex aex o coopyex cpoe: o acx ocoo ce oep o Opyo eeo opo.
          ae ceo a ooopax aeae o a c aoo acaa. Oo ax ocoeoce opae oecex a a opax ec x eoc opay opoc acpoy opoe, eo e oe opae apxeype oopa, pecae pee py ao, ce e e. Hecop a y eoo pecae opoa ao opaeo coe, op c caocoe opa coo. Ha ooopax pecae ce x (ace oco, ycaee aca, oxoe oa) oecex a (oe, opoo-aoco-oopce, yypo-pee, poceee oo-aoopee, a ae ocyae poeoc pacop p.
          oyeae op oo ocoepo peocpypoa o copecoro epa capo Moc, opee eca ceo, yco pao oopao .. Oco epec ooop oy peca cceoa o ea; aoopeoc Moce, oecee yee a aaa XX . B, pecaee a opax, cyeceo oo opa, aeae a opax oooyeax o ea.
          Bo opo paee Toopaece ocoeoc opo c a Moc paccapac aooepoc a opo c ococ a ooceo oopa opoa. Ce ox opo Moc aac coeopa aoec aop opo, ocex p opoa (ae ce aopaoe opaee, epax y oae, yapo, coopo oacpe, opo). a opao a op oaa a copecoo epa opoa, a aoee ece. Bpa oe ca, ae ooa, opa, pee ceo, e a ecoc, oope xopoo aae, , ooac ee ae, a cax oce, a oce opoa. ooy, aey pyy ceo ox opo coca pae oecee a, pacooee epao ac opoa: coop oacp, eap, aoopee pee, oc, oc oa, oope oy aa coeopa apoa Moc.
          Hecoeo, ca oyp ococ cea ae Kpe. C oa XIX ea pa aeca o yeo oee c opo, ocex peec ocopeaeoc. o ce ococe paae oa eoo eoo opoo ( peeax copeeoo Caooo oa) a coe oopaee a oeax opx cax. Ka pao, oopaa cpoac oe oee, aoee ece a. ooo aco oe y pecae aca, o Kpe pacooe e epy. Op, ae pae o, ooa poce eee oa opoa 1890-1910- o.
          Ocoo eoc oaa ec paoo, oope aeo cee pae p peocp acpoe opoa 1920-1930- . (Moxoa, epoa, pao y oapco oo Moao, Tepca, Oxo p, Coa p.). ooop c a opecoce Moc e ooe copecoe aee, a a o cpae c copec epo opoa, ec e eac aa ooca ao. acpoa o ac opoa, a opao, epea, a ocec paopaa e coxpaac o ax e.
          Boe op ao ao cppy coec aay XX . Moce p paocpoeca: peoaae aoao coo acpo peeax Kaep-Koecoo aa. C pao cee opooc a oox apoax aeae o ce oe Kpe Ka-opoa, ce y eoo opoa eoo. ooa opae y oae opoa a ooopax paa acoc o cee aeoc o epa. Ocoa ee oooyepoa aoa - e ae o epa, e ee aeaex a opax oeo. Ka pao, cpoac oe oae, ec aece caocoex ceo aoee ae cop yyp opoa oe. pa ocoeoc aaec o, o oe y peca, a pao, o e e yac, a opae epeyo epepo aeaeo peao ao, ae epe opoa. ee pocppoa poe II.
          Tpe pae Op copo-cooo xapaepa. T Moc ao c o oo oyeax opo - copo-co apoa. Op, oec oe a pae co opoco , a pao, a oee eox, e aoecx ox peopax ceo. Ocoeo e op, aeaee oe oceeo oce pyea XIX-XX eo: poy pa, pece xo oe oce ox cpoe, oya oapa a pe p.
          Byco opo oee oe aee co, pooee Moce oe XIX - aae XX . - opoaoe opeca 1896 ., oa eee paex Moce c c pcco-oco oo, peoooe occae oxopo ep 1905 ., paoae 300-e oa Poaox 1913 ., peooe co 1917 . Ha opax aeae ae co a paa 1904 ., aoee 1908 ., p xyoecex cao.
          Op copo-cooo xapaepa o-ooy pacpa e oceeo Moc a pee XIX- XX ., opo (ocoeo yo), y, peca ocoeoc opocoo oca o p. ooo oa pa ooopo a ocea a aae "a" oceeo y opoa. ooce c oppea opoooo, oecoo, paoca, aea, pyoca, caoa, eoo pa poao pao ceaa ceceo oo ap ococo .
          B ae oee ocoe or poeeoo cceoa.
          Maccooe ae opx ce a pyee XIX-XX . Pocc oc aooep peyao ooecx ao-execx peopaoa, pooex aay XX coe. Ha pyee XIX-XX . ae oae cppoax opx ce cao p ee coopo Moc, o oepeca ppoa pocxoe aoo coa oeaa coa oo ooeoc Moc.
          Cooyoc oyeax opx ce c a Moc ec caocoe opa coo o oopa Moc pyea XIX-XX . Ope ca ocoepo peca o copecoo epa opecoce Moc, paoopae copo copo-yypo coao opoa.
          Ocoy ooo ceoo pa ococx oeax opo coca o paooc opo pea XIX-XX . peepap. Hap c acc ooopo coep eao pex yax opae c a Moc.
          oyeae ope ca a o cax eopax ocyx o pao pa, oye pooe pacpocpaee aae ea, o-ooy pacp eoe oopa aae XX coe. aoap co paa x a, eeoy oeopoa x coo, ooo a coxpaea eaa ac oopaecoo ace pyea XIX-XX ., opae aepa ea oopoo ceceo pae XX coe.
          K oo ayax aa copeex cceoa oe oecea paoa po oxoo eoo a oo cooaeo c. Heoxoo paoa py poe, opee oo cooo a, eco ccee pax apae copeco ay.
          apaeo c papaoo ox po eoxoo ec poy paecy paoy: oc copeex ye oa yco xpae opaa cooa cppoax opx ce; pooee ooacax cceoa oax oeecex apyex apxo, ocyapcex acx oapccx copax, c e e aaa acao ooo oea oyeax opo oyeo o epecye ac poeae; cocaee oopo coo, ya aaoa pax oapccx copa (a ocyapcex, a acx). aa ax apxx cceoa ca c cocaee cpaoo o ae opaa, yca cppoae ope ca.
          B ao paoe aop cpec oaa o aee, oopoe ee yee oyeax opx ce pyx apae copeco c: cop oopa, cop opaeco poeoc, opo ypa, o c, cop ccca yyp, apxeopa, cop oceeoc .. Hae pox ce ey ee opx ce p opac copecoo a oo eoo e aac p cocex epeco, a ao cococoa pacpe pecae o ox cex poeax. Beoee aa epce pa ye oyeax opo (cae pe, cppoax opx ce) opee apaee eoo a eee opeeeoe yyee aee copeex yaapx cceoax.


          B poex pee: I. epee oopao, aee orpa, mycax ope ca c a Moc. II. Cxe-ap y Moc (Hoco, Tepco, Tepco-co eepypcoo occe) c pepa ca x oa a opax.


          o ee ccepa aopo oyoa ceye pao:

  1. o aoe // Op p. ypa o opax. 2001. 1. c. 30.
  2. oooye a copec co ( copopa opoca) //cooeee copopa pe yaapoo a. oa ec ay. o. Moca, 2002. C. 296-299.
  3. ooa apoa a poee yyp //ooococe e. Copeee ee pa ae o oece. Maepa ay. o. Moca, 2002. c. 172-175.
  4. opoa ooco a capx opax (o aepaa oea oa P) //opoa epao Pocc cop pepaeca yyp. Cepexoc c.-xyo. ye. I oepe. o., coo., ec. Cepexo, 2003. C. 203-208.
  5. oyeaa opa a copec co: eoa ye // copeca oapaca copecoe ocpoee. Tec o. coo. XV ay. o. Moca. 2003. C. 189-192.
  6. O Moc a oyeax opax oa XlX-aaa XX . copa P // Kyypa: o opa a. Tec cooe eyap. o. Pece e. Moca. 2003. C. 143-146.
  7. paocaa Moca a capx opax // ypa Mococo apapx. 2003. 1. C.84-89.
  8. Bopoe poee capx opo // opa. 2004. # 1 (330). C. 126-136. ( coaopce c eao ..).
  9. O po oeeao op paeeecx cceoax // Kpaeeee Pocc: cop. Copeeoe cocoe. epce pa: Maepa Bcepocccoo ceapa paeeo o ao poe - co Oe: apac, 30 ap 2004 . M, 2004. C. 125-129.
  10. Copae cppoax opo Poccco ocyapceo oe // y: ypa oeoepo opo. 2004. 1. C. 12-13.