: 09.00.04 -


          - , . 1995 .

1.
          epo oa XIX - aaa XX ea Pocc xapaepyec oeo poeoo pooca, coeo poa aaae cycca, o oo a yc xyoecex e eao poo acae. B co oepe o epo aac o pc yxoo Pocc o e coaocopecx poecco oex peoox co. Cooe epeeee ceecx coax poe opaoc a xyoeceo Pocc, ooopa ocococeecx ca cycce.
          Xoecee op, oae apx apax cycca, poeoe pooco epo acc, peyae eo yaoe caooc ocoe ceoeo, a accooe oeo aoyaoy. Oeococ paco, oe xyoeceoc opae ocoe oy, ye xoeceoeopeeco c pyea XIXXX . eopaa ccca aaac caoe ecoo oaa e ccco pee ocpeco xyoecex cao pax o oco ce eao pa aoee ecex cpec pa accox op cycca.
          eaa paa o oaac a acye ceece poe pee, coaaa yxoy cpe, oecyy a eoea, oae paco op, , paco, cococoaa ce e pax coco, oaoo ocyo opoco cpee epeeco .
          o eao pao opayeac "au, oy ac oea oopx aae opaee c pau ecmo e eca": aa, xoecee op, pepo, ca, a ae e, a a, oape a, e a cpc, aeape ce, xoeceo oopee pacee e, eapae poa, e pee aepao yxoo yyp pee.
          Oeo cceoa acoe ccepa ec eea ceo ooopa o eao pa xoecea opa.
          pee cceoa cea op a eoea xyoeceo yyp.
          Ayaoc cceoa xoeceo op a a eao pa ocoea occe ooaero copoceecoo cceoa a eooaey ey. Cece ae apea eoxooc opoepy e oece e o oepxococ op, ee oaeoc o oo p, ocpe xoeceo op aece peeceoo e, oaeoc ox aeco pepoypoa opao, popoc caaoc ceo. Heoxoo ac o ococeo cop yp oocopoeo oxoa ope.
          Xpoooece pa pao oocoac ce co: peee oe epx pyccx xoecex opo (oe XIX ea) Opco peoe 1917 ., ope opao c aecy ccey Pocc, peopeee ee eooa, ocoe e ca aeoe oeee opaeo-paeo eaeco ap opx ce.
          e ccepa - paccope copo-yp poecc pa xoeceo op, ce co ee opaeoo pa oece coao yxoo oeca. aa e opeea opee aa cceoa:
  1. oo cyecye a copo-yyp poecc caoe pa xoeceo op a a eao pa;
  2. peo paep oo xyoeceo op, ey paecy apaeoc;
  3. oxapaepoa cooyype y xyoeceo op;
  4. pacp cceapoa opaey coy xyoeceo op.

          Meoooeco ocoo ccepaoo pao cya eopeece oce copo-ococx, ceecx cyccoeecx c, cae c aao xyoeceo op poecce ee aoec c cooyyp e oeca. pee ocaex aa cooa o epe eoxooc oec ayx eoo, aooox py pa, acoc yoa cpypoooec eo. peee oaecoo eoa ooo aoee epece a, oopx po oceo opac poe eao pa.
          co cceoa.
          p e pcco xoeceo op cooa o oea oa oea pyoce Poccco ocyapceo oe, a ae - ep acx oe, eo peocaee x aea. epoeca ea pyea XIX-XX . ac ccepaooo cceoa cooae coo. K e oocc pee ceo a, eo ocee poea cop op, ee oeopoa, poa caoo c peapoa, ypa "Opoe co" (C., 1904-1906), "Opa" (Kaya, 1907-1909), "Opoe co" (a, 1906) p.; ypa, oceae oe opoc oeopoa, "Map oeoep" (C, 1903-1910), "Koeoep" (co, 1902 .), "Map" (Ke, 1896-1901); paae pae ooo oya ("ooo-eepa ypa"); ocee cop cycca, xoeceo Pocc ("Bec x cycc", "ccco xoecea poeoc", "Xyoecee copoa Pocc"). coyc epoece a ocepeoooo epoa o o opoca copa yera pax peeo cycca aepao yp, o ce eao rpa: ypa "Cpe oeoepo", "aa", "poy ocycca", "ae CCCP", "Xyo".
          B ccepaoo cceoa aapyc ae opeooe aao aec, ycax opoy poy: "O c. Ee", "Pap" eepype, "" Kee.
          aecoa oopaece p ca, ocee opoca oo acca: "Too a" (M., 1990), "Kacca pyccx cex coo o oeeceo cop" .H.yapea (M., 1975), ca H..apo, O..Bpaco, ..Kyoo. K cceoa ae pee pao oapco, cpe oopx ocooo a acya H.C.Tapa "Mp ope" (M., 1978) "B ocax eooo" (., 1962), cpao M.C. aoe "oap" (M., 1973), ocoe B.B. eea .B. aea "Ka copa xoecee op" (M., 1963), ao M.. ao "Xyoecea opa" (M., 1993).
          p ye co op cooaac aya epa, oopo papaoaa eop coo. ococ oxo oo pacp c ceecoo acea xyoeceo op c coa yco ee yopoa. Cooyype y xoeceo op aapyc oece ceecx cceoa, ocex xyoeceo Pocc pyea XIX-XX . (pao AA. Copoa "Pycca paa aaa XX ea" (M., 1969), .. Cepa: "Xyoecea Pocc 1900-1910-x oo" (M., 1988), .B.Capaoa "C oep. co. cop. poe" (M., 1989), H.. apo: "Pycc aa (oe XlX-aao XX ea)" (., 1988); H.M.opo: "Ha pyee coe. coo accooo cycca Pocc. 1900-1910- ." (M., 1976) p.).
          B e xoeceo Pocc opo ocope ac ae eyapa epaypa.
          Haya oa ccepa coco o, o opa epe oc ay oopo a co ye xyoeceo Pocc pyea XIX-XX . Cocaea paepya acca pycco xoeceo op, a a , oee oa o cpae c peecy. Be cooyype y xyoeceo op. Bepe aec acca opo aa coo pycco xyoeceo op.
          paecoe aee ccepa
          ccepaooe cceoae oe cy ocoo:
          Apoa ccepaooo cceoa
          Ocoe ooe o ccepa oyoa pe cae aopa, oe oaax, poax a oepex oox ceaco Poccco ocyapceo oe (Moca, ape 1991, 1992, 1993, ape 1994 .); a Pyecx ex Poccco ocyapceo oee (ape 1995 .); a Ceo ayo-paeco oepe o poea oee "Ka eec pe" (Moca, a 1992 .); a Tpee ayopaeco oepe oox yex ceaco ea "ea. Mooe. Po." (Coec, cep 1992 .); a ayo oepe "cycco pycco XIXIX ." Poccco ocyapceo oee (Moca, eap 1994 .); a ce Mococoo oa yex Aae ay (epa 1992 .). Ocoe ooe ccepa ocye a poeo pye aep poopoa coopx poecco Pocccoro cya epeooo paoo ccca, p pa ( 1995 .).
          Cpyypa cccpa opeeec e aaa cceoa. Paoa coco ee, epex a ae. paaec cco epayp o ee.

          Bo ee oocoac op e, ee ayaoc, opeec xpoooece pa, e ocoe aa cceoa, eoooeca cooa a ccepa. Oeac aya oa paeca aoc pao.
          B epo ae "o op: copoyyp poecc" aec opeeee op a a eao pa. Ocooe ae yeec xyoeceo ope, yco ee oe pa Pocc. poceac poecc oppoa aec, eeoc oopx a caa c yco opo.
          Aapyc p, ooe ope ca ae ee yypo Pocc.
          Xyoecea opa (opoe co, ooa apoa) o " (c 1872 o 1925 . - 90x140 , c 1925 . - 150x105 ) oa , , , ".
          B cop pycco xyoeceo op oo ycoo e ecoo ao. p, a aae oooe, a xpoooec ooaaec cey co: oeo oe epo xyoeceo op aao Epoe 1871 . o pe paopycco o oo poe epo pycco cppoao ooo apo 1895 . o epo xapaepyec pooee Pocc epoecx ox, oppex, opopaecx, aoox pcoax opaecx opo, peax oae apo ecpoo, ooc ox ec, oae ypyaoo oopa, ocpoo aoo cea, eocae o e pe o ocaeoc ocy oo eco paco. ooe op poaac o cex aax aaepex aaax, aax ooax oapo, a pax cox poax . ae o oaa py oeax opaee cex cooe, o x - oaoa, oca op apecaa, a aacy po a ce oa, p cyyo, ceee ao copa oeoepo, caoc p pea opoco ceco .
          oae ao XIX . a oy op oa op oceeo eoea oo pee oo ca pea cee o yco yypoox aooce e: aapee pcy, apaae ap oy XIX ea oceeo ecc peeo-opaeo cpe, opyae eoea, opa, opa py a eao pa.
          Bopo a apoe, "epx ao" pycco op xpoooec oee 1895 ( 1894) . oo oe epo xyoeceo op, pecae coo oa pcoax o Moc Kea (oe op oc o oopeeo pyo ycao, aa pae), 1898 . aao aeco eeoc "O c. Ee", c a coe poecce o op.
          a epo pacea pycco xyoeceo op apyec 1898-1914 .
          Byco opo o epo aac, poe ceapoax aec, ae x ceyax cao, aao, pae oeca, oe, y, pea ypao ae, o oycoo aaeoe ooe ceoe paoopae xyoeceo op opeoooo epoa.
          Aa xox o epo aoee aex ceapoax ypao, ocex poee a oeopoa opo, cococoax o pycco xyoeceo op, ooe cea o o o, o eo epoece a cy e a cy eo ey coae opee opoo poy, oopoe ooo ccee "ae pacpocpae opae copae apeca" yceo yopoa.
          B eaa epo a poo pacpocpaea oeca oeoapoeca opa. ae pepaa co poy coeopae co co ooe capec pcya oorpa. B paaece peooe coaac o py eeae op, pacpocpaec pecae oooo Kpacoo Kpeca.
          eep a (1914-1917 .) oee co epo poo o, epaco opco peo 1917 . ooa apoa ao oa oyay y, cooaac a eeoe cpeco aa poaa aoap a ee coca, a aoopaoc, papoaoc, ooc, eea eoc popee.
          Paccope ocoe a caoe o pycco xyoeceo op opeoooro epoa, oo caa, o oa ac peeo e oo aepao, o pee ceo yxoo yyp, eco ca c cope cpa, coepecoae eaoo ea, pae opaeoo cycca.
          Bopa aa - "Kacca xyoeceo op: , eaa, ce".
          Aop ooaae ceaa o xyoecex opo: 1) pae (aa pe eepecex acca opae o x yoaoy aae); 2) epaypo-yae; 3) capece opcece; 4) opoo-poee caoo-eapae (aa pea o yoaoy aae); 5) pcoae oe; 6) pcoae oppee; 7) e; 8) oece oeo-apoece; 9) aoopee; 10) opopaece; 11) apao-cxeaece; 12) eapae; 13) apoe eco ea; 14) ao-oe ( oee yo ooae - opaece); 15) opae op ay; 16) pepoyoe; 17) .
          Mey oco eooae a xyoecex opo cyecy a aaee epexoe, coeae cee oee coca cocecyx o. Hae aoo poa epexox op oop o ocyc pex pa ey eaec a cy oeo epo aeooecx acca, oop oocc peoea acca. opoo paccapac eaa ce aoo eepecex o.
          Teaa ce pax opo opeoooo epoa cooecy paa Poeca Xpcoa, Hooo oa, Ceoo Xpcoa Bocpece, Co Tpo, Mace, Aea, paocoea.
          ay po, opeey paccopee ae ce epapo-yax opo, pae coo, oopoe ooec, cppec opaee o cpoa yaoo poee.
          B capecx opcecx opax ec ceye cee py: capa a opeeee co oeca, poecc; oppee p apayp a oecx eee eee yyp; oeca, aaooacapa; capa a oeca aye exe, p aep, ceee ooe, acpoax e; opcece oco ooop, pca, acy ax; opoa, pye ecee e pye oye; epoapece cep opo c o oec cea.
          B ae opoo aapyc cee py opoopoex caoo-eapax opo, oe pcoae op, poe op-peyc, aa, coap, ay, cococoae pa oopae, a, a y ee, a y pocx.
          Teaa a oecx oeo-apoecx opo opeeec pee ceo coa opce, oop o oao aao XX ea, oo a pyccoocy oy 1904-1905 ., peo 1905-1907 ., epacy opcy 1917 ., epy poy oy. Boeoapoece op coco pex ocox cex py: aa-p, oye o; "aca" c opae cx; xpoa oex co (apco aax ce, oppeo oo epoe).
          Paccope ae aoopee op, eec cey cea: oa ap, cop eex cpec a y o, p ocac a oe ae, oo pae, e-cpoa. ooe op aac ae ceo aoope oeca, e oopx opypoac x aax (acoe oeco oee o ex, oeco ppe cpo , ax epa oa p.).
          Teaec opopaecx opo ae ep-o c aax opao oooo poa, aepoax ae a oaex ypax, ax ceax ooo pa.
          Mooopaa eaa apaocxeaecx opo, oopx aoap cooy ypo pa opaeco poeoc aac eopaece ap ep opoo, ap a oex ec, poe apa coco oo Pocc.
          B eapax opo, eco ca c pepoyo opa, ae ocpoee ocx paecx pao xyoo, ox apny, ocoy y cocao ac eapaoo eca, opaeec a e cee py opo: eopa ceec ocaoa c eapax oco.
          apoe op eco ea ec caocoe o ocooy ecyey y ceo ooopa x ceo - e peeoy py, opyaey ee. opaeec a cee y, cooecye paccope e eaec a: op-aa, epaypoyae, peae, oece, oeo-apoece, opae c paa, oe p ecx pye, aoe c poecc, o oca pax ox, eca peea oa p.
          Paccope aooe, o ce opaece op, opaae coae, aoae, poeccoae e, pap, pae y, oe oce, oa .
          B opo c opae op a opaeec a cep, pecae ay, oaae epec poeccoaooao oooo poco ee ooo paceoo pa, op, oopx e aceoe, oe o eopay, co ceecy y.
          B pepoyox opo oee ocpoee pao pyccx aaoepoecx xyoo, cyopo, acepo eopao-paoo cycca. O xapaepyec ec epeeee co ce paccope pee pya, ae op, oeee cep, pecae copoa aoax yee oe; pacpae eep acx xyoecex opa, pypy x o a cycca o paeoc oy oy ay ye.
          B peoeo acca yac aoee pacpocpaee ece xyoecex opo, e, ce.
          Tpe aa - "y xyoeceo op".
          Opa epoaao a ayaa a yooe, e peee oo pee yc cpeco ooo c, oeaee poecc pao, epea, oye coe opa.
          ceeca y op caa c oee a ee eo copoe opaee. ooa apoa cyaa a oce poee cycca, opeeea opa pae xyoeceoo coepa.
          B ae paccapaec poecc oppoa ceecx o a opy, cax c poopee o "opa" "o", "eoe" "oeceoe", "yaoe" "papoaoe", "yaoe" "caapoe", ycoo opaeex a e py. Copo oo py e ope cppoa ccca, ca ee ceo ap cpeco accoo oya. Moe pecae epeoo ee ( pepy, B.. Caco), ppc c cecoae opo a o xyoecex poee, ca oao, o oyaa y cococe oeopae opo oo ee, p pa .. Copo opo py paccapa opy a poeee opae, oopaecoo, aecoo opaecoo cycca, ecee ce c cooc ooopae ocpoooo opaa, a yepca cpye yyp, oop oe ceo cooa pee xoecex aa ( o pye oocc B..Poao).
          Oea opy c ceeco o pe, cpaeoc pa eoxoo oe, o e e y opo aooea oo pacoc ceo, cao ce, eccoepaeoe opoopeco, cecao aopa, cpaopeaa pococ.
          Caoee pa xyoeceo op Pocc ocpaoc epeoo oeceoc a oppoae oe yypo pa, oopo poceece y peeo peoaa pyce oopo a ooa ocaoa cepex eoopecx aa. Op oca acc o aoa paco, pya axo pepacoe, oeoe cao , cococoa ycoe oc a, ye, ao coaoo oa, aoex peec ooe, x coxpae, a a opaee a ope eao opooe oeco opa, ec coeopa eco, eppepy ya o pa yyp, oe pooe acoee.
          Oa cax ax y xyoeceo op eoceca pepeaoa. Op pee ceo ocae ooce, paeae, acae acaac opaee a eo copoe, ypaae , cococye oxy.
          Paccapa ooaooc ooyoaoc aoo yypoo e, a opa, oo e aeca, pcye e eaco o oex y: opa cea a caa c pea aa eoeeco , epao oopo ac oe oece cop.
          B eepo ae "Co xyoeceo ope" oe cceoa paccapaec a peeoe opaoae yyp, oepaeec ceoeco eppea, ocaeoe aoap aoo, coeco ope. Opa ocpaec a ce oecx, ox ao coo. B ao ae poceaec poa coa ope: 1) coceo opa a co eoeecx ooe; 2) coa opae a eo copoe op; 3) coa aeco ap a oopoo copoe op.
          ea copoa op cy oec ao-oe, ocpoeee, pepoye, oee eee cxoo c ooaae oeo, oyo ea ee o ae co, ao pecae acpae e, o, pae a epe aoe acoe ee eoc opa pa eo ocpe yo.
          aec a ocoeoc co op, oopa ocoae coceco ee opaeo p a aaex oeoax ao e aeop, oaxc po coapo epeoy, cpoo apeex coe ae, c o ooao coo, opepoao a yoe, co ooaoe poee.
          Tpaoa coo xyoeceo op, poa ao ae, ocyecec peeax pecae o ae peeo, coxc pyey XIXXX , aco coxpaxc ae pe. paec o ae paoe oae coo pax yypx cpeax. Xoecee co a eo copoe op ycoo paec a ceye py: 1) opaeae ( poo oa ae oo coa; a pae, ae pacee, oe pye ee); 2)peoe; 3)opooe; 4)ooece; 5)e, ep; 6) ceece opae co, pcye opeee eaec a opo. B co oepe opaeae co opaec a: a) pacee; ) oe; ) eoepece; ) opa peeoeo cpe. opoo oopc o aoee aco opex coax, cpeaxc xyoecex opax, x ae.
          Pacea coa, poopacpocpaea pao, pepoyoo, apoo eco ea, coceo opaeao c opae op ay opax, ae coy eo (c yeo cyoc ea eo op, c oo copo, ea, c pyo) epee. B coe ox, o ce aceox, paac e aeop opaex oeo: aypae (cpeaec pax, apox eco ea, c opae op ay coceo opaeax opax) caoe ooece (oae pepoyox, epaypoyax, oeoapoecx, eapax opaeax opax, aecx apax) oe. eoepece co (py, oce aoe , apa peca ..) aco cpeac a ex copoax opo e eopax pao, paax paece poe oo. K opaa peeoeo cpe a coca ooea opaeax coo oocc oo, a, p, , ac, ce pye pee, ecye opeeeo oece ay ccoy ap. poecc ace opaea coa opaeoo pa xoeceo op eco ca c opoee a pyee XIXXX . pa peepycco yyp, e epeco eoepecoy, paceoy, ooy epaooreco opaea, opc capx pyocx epeo pee.
          Peoe (yoe) co - o cax cox eeo yyp, coxpac a poe cee. Pe e o xpae a coe xpcaco ep, oe-oepee, ecye ac yoecex coc aeaeoo opaa, coax - eoeex paeocx paoa xpcacx pao (acxao e, epo ee, poececo Beeco ee p.).
          Opo-oe co, cpeaec a pax pepoyox opax, eco ca c peoo coo, a ae pao apo pa oa xpcocoae, ocee ye, , acx, pec xoo acxay o, aae e acxax , poececo eo, caee Xpca - ooae, co aa y, ace a, oeo opya oa e paocoea.
          Mooece co, cpeaec a opax, opaec a xopoo ece cycce opa, pee Aoc, ecx epoa pe Pa, ee, cae c ; ece epcoa ce, eo ocee c oo eco ceoo ca; caoe e opa. Bcpeac pepoyox, pax, oeo-apoecx, opopaecx apox eco ea opax.
          e coaoo aae, oop oocc ocyapcee ep, a, ocopa, a oeoo ocoo o, c coa ocyapceoo cepeea Pocc, pae opeeex oecex ooe.
          B aey pyy xo ceece opa peee co, pcye opeee eaec a opo, coaco peoeo o opo ae acca. Aapyc aoee xapaepe x.
          K aeop ao oocc ae aeca apa, cyecya e po c c opaee a eo copoe op eco a oopoe. B ee ao ope cpaec coepae, ooee opee po aeca, eo e, aa. aece ap oy ao cpo, o epeo popea oee paepy xapaep, peca coo ey oo, apy. yee ocoeoce aecx apo ao oooc cea cey o: ee oo aeco ap oc po pae coec xapaep opay cooyoc e "ec", cocae c yeo opeeeoo coea aoec ao, oepac e cea ooaoy, opo ooo cyeoy ooa, paoepoc oopoo oycoea eco paoo coyex coo po peee aye eoa oe, aeo pao a ocaoy poe op cocoa ee pee, o poeocppoao ao ae a pepe aoee aco cpeaxc opax aecx apo.
          B ae ooc ocoe o poeeoo cceoa, pao poceaec ocepeoo epo pa xyoeceo op Pocc.
          Xyoecea opa a eao pa poa coe y pa, epe epo apoe, caoe, aceo pacea, aaeoo pepeooe o, oeyeo yaa. opeoo epo pa op opeeec ee eaec ce paoopae, co poe opaecoo coe, o cpoco a opoy poy, pae cycca "ax op" pa a apa, coo yypo oea opa, x oeopoa, cepe ooee , e oo a oo op epec, o a cocoy poaa pacpocpae cycca.
          Oxapaepoa opy a aepa oce opa, ceo yyp eoeeca, oo oe ee a epexoy opy o cooo pa copoo apa X - aae XIX coe, oa e caoc oe ecece paa a yae co c yca, epe oe cy opae pa cooe a aex oax ya pae eo opye po ycox ayo-execoo popecca XX ea, opoeo oe oya - paoeeoy ocecy c.
          B ao cceoa pepa epa oa cepeoo ayoo oxoa ope a aoy e yyp. p o opoepaec ya oa pe a opy a pocy eey, "ey" aecy poy. poc aece pepa xyoecee op, ec y opaa paecoo opaecoo cycca, coae ac pycc xyoa a poo ec (A.eya, ., K.Coo, .Hapy, .Pe, A.Ocpoyoa-eeea), a e a (E.Cao-Cyoca, .Cooea, E.e, E.eeea, A.Kpacoc, .op). oepaec paoopae oo a eao pa, pooc acao o aa cex eo copo.
          B ccepa peaaec oa paepya acca pycco yoeceo op; c ee y, pcye xyoeceo yype eo; pacpaec poa coa op: a coa eoeecx ooe, opaeoo pa eo copo op, aeco ap.
          o ee ccepa oyoa ceye pao:
  1. xoaeo A.E. acxaa opa // Ceca ooe, 1991, N 4, c. 64-65. - 0,2 ..
  2. xoaeo .E. Pycca opeooa opa: cop ooe, ooe paoopae, opaecoe oopee // Tec cooe oepe oox ceaco ocyapceo oe CCCP . B..ea (22 ape 1991). - M., 1991. - C. 48-49. - 0,1 ..
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